مارگارت تاچر


مارگارت تاچر

Ma ga e Tha che Ma ga e Hilda Tha che , Ba o ess Tha che , LG, OM, DS J, PC, FRS, Ho FRSC ( ée Robe s; 13 Oc obe 1925 – ۸ Ap il 2013), was P ime Mi is e of he U i ed Ki gdom f om 1979 o 1990 […]


Ma ga e Tha che

Ma ga e Hilda Tha che , Ba o ess Tha che , LG, OM, DS J, PC, FRS, Ho FRSC ( ée Robe s; 13 Oc obe 1925 – ۸ Ap il 2013), was P ime Mi is e of he U i ed Ki gdom f om 1979 o 1990 a d Leade of he Co se va ive Pa y f om 1975 o 1990. She was he fi s female B i ish p ime mi is e a d he lo ges -se vi g B i ish p ime mi is e of he 20 h ce u y. As p ime mi is e , she impleme ed policies ha became k ow as Tha che ism. A Sovie jou alis dubbed he he I o Lady, a ick ame ha became associa ed wi h he u comp omisi g poli ics a d leade ship s yle.

Tha che s udied chemis y a Some ville College, Oxfo d, a d wo ked b iefly as a esea ch chemis , befo e becomi g a ba is e . She was elec ed Membe of Pa liame fo Fi chley i 1959. Edwa d Hea h appoi ed he Sec e a y of S a e fo Educa io a d Scie ce i his 1970–۱۹۷۴ gove me . I 1975, she defea ed Hea h i he Co se va ive Pa y leade ship elec io o become Leade of he Opposi io , he fi s woma o lead a majo poli ical pa y i he U i ed Ki gdom.

O becomi g p ime mi is e af e wi i g he 1979 ge e al elec io , Tha che i oduced a se ies of eco omic policies i e ded o eve se high i fla io a d B i ai ‘s s uggles i he wake of he Wi e of Disco e a d a o comi g ecessio . b 1 He poli ical philosophy a d eco omic policies emphasised de egula io (pa icula ly of he fi a cial sec o ), he p iva isa io of s a e-ow ed compa ies, a d educi g he powe a d i flue ce of ade u io s. He popula i y i he fi s yea s i office wa ed amid ecessio a d isi g u employme . Vic o y i he 1982 Falkla ds Wa a d he ecove i g eco omy b ough a esu ge ce of suppo , esul i g i he la dslide e-elec io i 1983. She su vived a assassi a io a emp by he P ovisio al IRA i he 1984 B igh o ho el bombi g a d achieved a poli ical vic o y agai s he Na io al U io of Mi ewo ke s i he 1984–۸۵ mi e s’ s ike.

Tha che was e-elec ed fo a hi d e m wi h a o he la dslide i 1987, bu he subseque suppo fo he Commu i y Cha ge (poll ax) was widely u popula , a d he i c easi gly Eu oscep ic views o he Eu opea Commu i y we e o sha ed by o he s i he cabi e . She esig ed as p ime mi is e a d pa y leade i 1990, af e a challe ge was lau ched o he leade ship. b 2 Af e e i i g f om he Commo s i 1992, she was give a life pee age as Ba o ess Tha che (of Kes eve i he Cou y of Li col shi e) which e i led he o si i he House of Lo ds. I 2013, she died of a s oke a he Ri z Ho el, Lo do , a he age of 87.

A pola isi g figu e i B i ish poli ics, Tha che is o e heless viewed favou ably i his o ical a ki gs a d public opi io of B i ish p ime mi is e s. He e u e co s i u ed a ealig me owa ds eolibe al policies i B i ai , wi h he complica ed legacy a ibu ed o Tha che ism deba ed i o he 21s ce u y.

Co e s

Ea ly life a d educa io

Family a d childhood

Ma ga e Hilda Robe s was bo o 13 Oc obe 1925, i G a ham, Li col shi e.6 He pa e s we e Alf ed Robe s (1892–۱۹۷۰), f om No hamp o shi e, a d Bea ice E hel S ephe so (1888–۱۹۶۰), f om Li col shi e.67 He fa he ‘s ma e al g a dmo he , Ca he i e Sulliva , was bo i Cou y Ke y, I ela d.8

Robe s spe he childhood i G a ham, whe e he fa he ow ed a obacco is ‘s a d a g oce y shop. I 1938, befo e he Seco d Wo ld Wa , he Robe s family b iefly gave sa c ua y o a ee age Jewish gi l who had escaped Nazi Ge ma y. Wi h he pe -f ie di g elde sis e Mu iel, Ma ga e saved pocke mo ey o help pay fo he ee age ‘s jou ey.9

Alf ed was a alde ma a d a Me hodis local p eache .10 He b ough up his daugh e as a s ic Wesleya Me hodis ,11 a e di g he Fi ki S ee Me hodis Chu ch,12 bu Ma ga e was mo e scep ical; he fu u e scie is old a f ie d ha she could o believe i a gels, havi g calcula ed ha hey eeded a b eas bo e six fee lo g o suppo wi gs.13 Alf ed came f om a Libe al family bu s ood (as was he cus oma y i local gove me ) as a I depe de . He se ved as Mayo of G a ham i 1945–۴۶ a d los his posi io as alde ma i 1952 af e he Labou Pa y wo i s fi s majo i y o G a ham Cou cil i 1950.10

Robe s a e ded Hu i g owe Road P ima y School a d wo a schola ship o Kes eve a d G a ham Gi ls’ School, a g amma school.614 He school epo s showed ha d wo k a d co i ual imp oveme ; he ex acu icula ac ivi ies i cluded he pia o, field hockey, poe y eci als, swimmi g a d walki g.15 She was head gi l i 1942–۴۳,۱۶ a d ou side school, while he Seco d Wo ld Wa was o goi g, she volu a ily wo ked as a fi e wa che i he local ARP se vice.17 O he s ude s hough of Robe s as he s a scie is , al hough mis ake advice ega di g clea i g i k f om pa que y almos caused chlo i e gas poiso i g. I he uppe six h yea Robe s was accep ed fo a schola ship o s udy chemis y a Some ville College, Oxfo d, a wome ‘s college, s a i g i 1944. Af e a o he ca dida e wi hd ew, Robe s e e ed Oxfo d i Oc obe 1943.1813

Oxfo d: 1943–۱۹۴۷

Robe s a ived a Oxfo d i 1943 a d g adua ed i 1947 wi h a seco d-class deg ee i chemis y, af e specialisi g i X- ay c ys allog aphy u de he supe visio of Do o hy Hodgki .19 He disse a io was o he s uc u e of he a ibio ic g amicidi .20 She also eceived he deg ee of Mas e of A s i 1950 (as a Oxfo d BA, she was e i led o he deg ee 21 e ms af e he ma icula io ).21 Robe s did o o ly s udy chemis y as she i e ded o be a chemis o ly fo a sho pe iod of ime,22 al eady hi ki g abou law a d poli ics.23 She was epo edly p oude of becomi g he fi s p ime mi is e wi h a scie ce deg ee ha becomi g he fi s female p ime mi is e .24 While p ime mi is e she a emp ed o p ese ve Some ville as a wome ‘s college.25 Twice a week ou side s udy she wo ked i a local fo ces ca ee .26

Du i g he ime a Oxfo d, Robe s was o ed fo he isola ed a d se ious a i ude.13 He fi s boyf ie d, To y B ay (1926–۲۰۱۴), ecalled ha she was ve y hough ful a d a ve y good co ve sa io alis . Tha ‘s p obably wha i e es ed me. She was good a ge e al subjec s.1327 Robe s’s e husiasm fo poli ics as a gi l made him hi k of he as u usual a d he pa e s as sligh ly aus e e a d ve y p ope .1327

Robe s became P eside of he Oxfo d U ive si y Co se va ive Associa io i 1946.28 She was i flue ced a u ive si y by poli ical wo ks such as F ied ich Hayek’s The Road o Se fdom (1944),29 which co dem ed eco omic i e ve io by gove me as a p ecu so o a au ho i a ia s a e.30

Pos -Oxfo d ca ee : 1947–۱۹۵۱

Af e g adua i g, Robe s moved o Colches e i Es**7** o wo k as a esea ch chemis fo BX Plas ics.31 I 1948 she applied fo a job a Impe ial Chemical I dus ies (ICI), bu was ejec ed af e he pe so el depa me assessed he as heads o g, obs i a e a d da ge ously self-opi io a ed.32 Jo Aga i No es a d Reco ds a gues ha he u de s a di g of mode scie ific esea ch la e impac ed he views as p ime mi is e .33

Robe s joi ed he local Co se va ive Associa io a d a e ded he pa y co fe e ce a Lla dud o, Wales, i 1948, as a ep ese a ive of he U ive si y G adua e Co se va ive Associa io .34 Mea while, she became a high- a ki g affilia e of he Ve mi Club,3536 a g oup of g ass oo s Co se va ives fo med i espo se o a de oga o y comme made by A eu i Beva .36 O e of he Oxfo d f ie ds was also a f ie d of he Chai of he Da fo d Co se va ive Associa io i Ke , who we e looki g fo ca dida es.34 Officials of he associa io we e so imp essed by he ha hey asked he o apply, eve hough she was o o he pa y’s app oved lis ; she was selec ed i Ja ua y 1950 (aged 24) a d added o he app oved lis pos a e.37

A a di e followi g he fo mal adop io as Co se va ive ca dida e fo Da fo d i Feb ua y 1949 she me divo cé De is Tha che , a successful a d weal hy busi essma , who d ove he o he Es**7** ai .38 Af e hei fi s mee i g she desc ibed him o Mu iel as o a ve y a ac ive c ea u e – ve y ese ved bu qui e ice.13 I p epa a io fo he elec io Robe s moved o Da fo d, whe e she suppo ed he self by wo ki g as a esea ch chemis fo J. Lyo s a d Co. i Hamme smi h, pa of a eam developi g emulsifie s fo ice c eam.39 She ma ied a Wesley’s Chapel a d he child e we e bap ised he e,40 bu she a d he husba d bega a e di g Chu ch of E gla d se vices a d would la e co ve o A glica ism.4142

Ea ly poli ical ca ee

I he 1950 a d 1951 ge e al elec io s, Robe s was he Co se va ive ca dida e fo he Labou sea of Da fo d. The local pa y selec ed he as i s ca dida e because, hough o a dy amic public speake , Robe s was well-p epa ed a d fea less i he a swe s; p ospec ive ca dida e Bill Deedes ecalled: O ce she ope ed he mou h, he es of us bega o look a he seco d- a e.24 She a ac ed media a e io as he you ges a d he o ly female ca dida e.43 She los o bo h occasio s o No ma Dodds, bu educed he Labou majo i y by 6,000, a d he a fu he 1,000.44 Du i g he campaig s, she was suppo ed by he pa e s a d by fu u e husba d De is Tha che , whom she ma ied i Decembe 1951.4445 De is fu ded his wife’s s udies fo he ba ;46 she qualified as a ba is e i 1953 a d specialised i axa io .47 La e ha same yea hei wi s Ca ol a d Ma k we e bo , delive ed p ema u ely by Caesa ea sec io .48

Membe of Pa liame : 1959–۱۹۷۰

I 1954, Tha che was defea ed whe she sough selec io o be he Co se va ive Pa y ca dida e fo he O pi g o by-elec io of Ja ua y 1955. She chose o o s a d as a ca dida e i he 1955 ge e al elec io , i la e yea s s a i g: I eally jus fel he wi s we e … o ly wo, I eally fel ha i was oo soo . I could ‘ do ha .49 Af e wa ds, Tha che bega looki g fo a Co se va ive safe sea a d was selec ed as he ca dida e fo Fi chley i Ap il 1958 ( a owly bea i g Ia Mo agu F ase ). She was elec ed as MP fo he sea af e a ha d campaig i he 1959 elec io .5051 Be efi i g f om he fo u a e esul i a lo e y fo backbe che s o p opose ew legisla io ,24 Tha che ‘s maide speech was, u usually, i suppo of he p iva e membe ‘s bill, he Public Bodies (Admissio o Mee i gs) Ac 1960, equi i g local au ho i ies o hold hei cou cil mee i gs i public; he bill was successful a d became law.5253 I 1961 she we agai s he Co se va ive Pa y’s official posi io by vo i g fo he es o a io of bi chi g as a judicial co po al pu ishme .54

O he f o be ches

Tha che ‘s ale a d d ive caused he o be me io ed as a fu u e p ime mi is e i he ea ly 20s24 al hough she he self was mo e pessimis ic, s a i g as la e as 1970: The e will o be a woma p ime mi is e i my life ime – he male popula io is oo p ejudiced.55 I Oc obe 1961 she was p omo ed o he f o be ch as Pa liame a y Sec e a y o he Mi is y fo Pe sio s by Ha old Macmilla .56 Tha che was he you ges woma i his o y o eceive such a pos , a d amo g he fi s MPs elec ed i 1959 o be p omo ed.57 Af e he Co se va ives los he 1964 elec io , she became spokeswoma o Housi g a d La d, i which posi io she advoca ed he pa y’s policy of givi g e a s he Righ o Buy hei cou cil houses.58 She moved o he Shadow T easu y eam i 1966 a d, as T easu y spokeswoma , opposed Labou ‘s ma da o y p ice a d i come co ols, a gui g hey would u i e io ally p oduce effec s ha would dis o he eco omy.58

Jim P io sugges ed Tha che as a Shadow Cabi e membe af e he Co se va ives’ 1966 defea , bu pa y leade Edwa d Hea h a d Chief Whip William Whi elaw eve ually chose Me vy Pike as he Co se va ive Shadow Cabi e ‘s sole woma membe .57 A he 1966 Co se va ive Pa y co fe e ce, Tha che c i icised he high- ax policies of he Labou gove me as bei g s eps o o ly owa ds Socialism, bu owa ds Commu ism, a gui g ha lowe axes se ved as a i ce ive o ha d wo k.58 Tha che was o e of he few Co se va ive MPs o suppo Leo Abse’s bill o dec imi alise male homo**7**uali y.59 She vo ed i favou of David S eel’s bill o legalise abo io ,6061 as well as a ba o ha e cou si g.62 She suppo ed he e e io of capi al pu ishme 63 a d vo ed agai s he elaxa io of divo ce laws.6465

I he Shadow Cabi e

I 1967, he U i ed S a es Embassy chose Tha che o ake pa i he I e a io al Visi o Leade ship P og am ( he called he Fo eig Leade P og am), a p ofessio al excha ge p og amme ha allowed he o spe d abou six weeks visi i g va ious US ci ies a d poli ical figu es as well as i s i u io s such as he I e a io al Mo e a y Fu d. Al hough she was o ye a Shadow Cabi e membe , he embassy epo edly desc ibed he o he S a e Depa me as a possible fu u e p ime mi is e . The desc ip io helped Tha che mee wi h p omi e people du i g a busy i i e a y focused o eco omic issues, i cludi g Paul Samuelso , Wal Ros ow, Pie e-Paul Schwei ze a d Nelso Rockefelle . Followi g he visi , Hea h appoi ed Tha che o he Shadow Cabi e 57 as Fuel a d Powe spokeswoma .66 Befo e he 1970 ge e al elec io , she was p omo ed o Shadow T a spo spokeswoma a d la e o Educa io .67

I 1968, E och Powell delive ed his Rive s of Blood speech i which he s o gly c i icised Commo weal h immig a io o he U i ed Ki gdom a d he he -p oposed Race Rela io s Bill. Whe Hea h elepho ed Tha che o i fo m he ha he would sack Powell f om he Shadow Cabi e , she ecalled ha she eally hough ha i was be e o le hi gs cool dow fo he p ese a he ha heigh e he c isis. She believed ha his mai poi s abou Commo weal h immig a io we e co ec a d ha he selec ed quo a io s f om his speech had bee ake ou of co ex .68 I a 1991 i e view fo Today, Tha che s a ed ha she hough Powell had made a valid a gume , if i some imes eg e able e ms.69

A ou d his ime, she gave he fi s Commo s speech as a shadow a spo mi is e a d highligh ed he eed fo i ves me i B i ish Rail. She a gued: … if we build bigge a d be e oads, hey would soo be sa u a ed wi h mo e vehicles a d we would be o ea e solvi g he p oblem.70 Tha che made he fi s visi o he Sovie U io i he summe of 1969 as he Opposi io T a spo spokeswoma , a d i Oc obe delive ed a speech celeb a i g he e yea s i Pa liame . I ea ly 1970, she old The Fi chley P ess ha she would like o see a eve sal of he pe missive socie y.71

Educa io Sec e a y: 1970–۱۹۷۴

The Co se va ive Pa y, led by Edwa d Hea h, wo he 1970 ge e al elec io , a d Tha che was appoi ed o he Cabi e as Sec e a y of S a e fo Educa io a d Scie ce. Tha che caused co ove sy whe , af e o ly a few days i office, she wi hd ew Labou ‘s Ci cula 1065 which a emp ed o fo ce comp ehe sivisa io , wi hou goi g h ough a co sul a io p ocess. She was highly c i icised fo he speed a which she ca ied his ou .72 Co seque ly, she d af ed he ow ew policy (Ci cula 1070), which e su ed ha local au ho i ies we e o fo ced o go comp ehe sive. He ew policy was o mea o s op he developme of ew comp ehe sives; she said: We shall … expec pla s o be based o educa io al co side a io s a he ha o he comp ehe sive p i ciple.73

Tha che suppo ed Lo d Ro hschild’s 1971 p oposal fo ma ke fo ces o affec gove me fu di g of esea ch. Al hough ma y scie is s opposed he p oposal, he esea ch backg ou d p obably made he scep ical of hei claim ha ou side s should o i e fe e wi h fu di g.23 The depa me evalua ed p oposals fo mo e local educa io au ho i ies o close g amma schools a d o adop comp ehe sive seco da y educa io . Al hough Tha che was commi ed o a ie ed seco da y mode -g amma school sys em of educa io a d a emp ed o p ese ve g amma schools,74 du i g he e u e as educa io sec e a y she u ed dow o ly 326 of 3,612 p oposals ( oughly 9 pe ce )75 fo schools o become comp ehe sives; he p opo io of pupils a e di g comp ehe sive schools co seque ly ose f om 32 pe  ce o 62 pe  ce .76 Neve heless, she ma aged o save 94 g amma schools.73

Du i g he fi s mo hs i office she a ac ed public a e io due o he gove me ‘s a emp s o cu spe di g. She gave p io i y o academic eeds i schools,74 while admi is e i g public expe di u e cu s o he s a e educa io sys em, esul i g i he aboli io of f ee milk fo schoolchild e aged seve o eleve .77 She held ha few child e would suffe if schools we e cha ged fo milk bu ag eed o p ovide you ge child e wi h .mw-pa se -ou pu .f acwhi e-space: ow ap.mw-pa se -ou pu .f ac . um,.mw-pa se -ou pu .f ac .de fo -size:80%;li e-heigh :0;ve ical-alig :supe .mw-pa se -ou pu .f ac .de ve ical-alig :sub.mw-pa se -ou pu .s -o lybo de :0;clip: ec (0,0,0,0);heigh :1px;ma gi :-1px;ove flow:hidde ;paddi g:0;posi io :absolu e;wid h:1px1⁄۳ pi daily fo u i io al pu poses.77 She also a gued ha she was simply ca yi g o wi h wha he Labou gove me had s a ed si ce hey had s opped givi g f ee milk o seco da y schools.78 Milk would s ill be p ovided o hose child e ha equi ed i o medical g ou ds, a d schools could s ill sell milk.78 The af e ma h of he milk ow ha de ed he de e mi a io ; she old he edi o -p op ie o Ha old C eigh o of The Spec a o : Do ‘ u de es ima e me, I saw how hey b oke Kei h Joseph, bu hey wo ‘ b eak me.79

Cabi e pape s la e evealed ha she opposed he policy bu had bee fo ced i o i by he T easu y.80 He decisio p ovoked a s o m of p o es f om Labou a d he p ess,81 leadi g o he bei g o o iously ick amed Ma ga e Tha che , Milk S a che .7782 She epo edly co side ed leavi g poli ics i he af e ma h a d la e w o e i he au obiog aphy: I lea ed a valuable lesso f om he expe ie ce. I had i cu ed he maximum of poli ical odium fo he mi imum of poli ical be efi .83

Leade of he Opposi io : 1975–۱۹۷۹

The Hea h gove me co i ued o expe ie ce difficul ies wi h oil emba goes a d u io dema ds fo wage i c eases i 1973, subseque ly losi g he Feb ua y 1974 ge e al elec io .81 Labou fo med a mi o i y gove me a d we o o wi a a ow majo i y i he Oc obe 1974 ge e al elec io . Hea h’s leade ship of he Co se va ive Pa y looked i c easi gly i doub . Tha che was o i i ially see as he obvious eplaceme , bu she eve ually became he mai challe ge , p omisi g a f esh s a .86 He mai suppo came f om he pa liame a y 1922 Commi ee86 a d The Spec a o ,87 bu Tha che ‘s ime i office gave he he epu a io of a p agma is a he ha ha of a ideologue.24 She defea ed Hea h o he fi s ballo a d he esig ed he leade ship.88 I he seco d ballo she defea ed Whi elaw, Hea h’s p efe ed successo . Tha che ‘s elec io had a pola isi g effec o he pa y; he suppo was s o ge amo g MPs o he igh , a d also amo g hose f om sou he E gla d, a d hose who had o a e ded public schools o Oxb idge.89

Tha che became Co se va ive Pa y leade a d Leade of he Opposi io o 11 Feb ua y 1975;90 she appoi ed Whi elaw as he depu y. Hea h was eve eco ciled o Tha che ‘s leade ship of he pa y.91

Televisio c i ic Clive James, w i i g i The Obse ve p io o he elec io as Co se va ive Pa y leade , compa ed he voice of 1973 o a ca slidi g dow a blackboa d. b 3 Tha che had al eady begu o wo k o he p ese a io o he advice of Go do Reece, a fo me elevisio p oduce . By cha ce, Reece me he ac o Lau e ce Olivie , who a a ged lesso s wi h he Na io al Thea e’s voice coach.9394 b 4

Tha che bega a e di g lu ches egula ly a he I s i u e of Eco omic Affai s (IEA), a hi k a k fou ded by Hayekia poul y mag a e A o y Fishe ; she had bee visi i g he IEA a d eadi g i s publica io s si ce he ea ly 1960s. The e she was i flue ced by he ideas of Ralph Ha is a d A hu Seldo , a d became he face of he ideological moveme opposi g he B i ish welfa e s a e. Key esia eco omics, hey believed, was weake i g B i ai . The i s i u e’s pamphle s p oposed less gove me , lowe axes, a d mo e f eedom fo busi ess a d co sume s.97

Tha che i e ded o p omo e eolibe al eco omic ideas a home a d ab oad. Despi e se i g he di ec io of he fo eig policy fo a Co se va ive gove me , Tha che was dis essed by he epea ed failu e o shi e i he House of Commo s. Co seque ly, Tha che decided ha as he voice was ca yi g li le weigh a home, she would be hea d i he wide wo ld.98 Tha che u de ook visi s ac oss he A la ic, es ablishi g a i e a io al p ofile a d p omo i g he eco omic a d fo eig policies. She ou ed he U i ed S a es i 1975 a d me P eside Ge ald Fo d,99 visi i g agai i 1977, whe she me P eside Jimmy Ca e .100 Amo g o he fo eig ips, she me Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi du i g a visi o I a i 1978.101 Tha che chose o avel wi hou bei g accompa ied by he shadow fo eig sec e a y, Regi ald Maudli g, i a a emp o make a bolde pe so al impac .100

I domes ic affai s, Tha che opposed Sco ish devolu io (home ule) a d he c ea io of a Sco ish Assembly. She i s uc ed Co se va ive MPs o vo e agai s he Sco la d a d Wales Bill i Decembe 1976, which was successfully defea ed, a d he whe ew Bills we e p oposed she suppo ed ame di g he legisla io o allow he E glish o vo e i he 1979 efe e dum o Sco ish devolu io .102

B i ai ‘s eco omy du i g he 1970s was so weak ha he Fo eig Sec e a y James Callagha wa ed his fellow Labou Cabi e membe s i 1974 of he possibili y of a b eakdow of democ acy, elli g hem: If I we e a you g ma , I would emig a e.103 I mid-1978, he eco omy bega o ecove , a d opi io polls showed Labou i he lead, wi h a ge e al elec io bei g expec ed la e ha yea a d a Labou wi a se ious possibili y. Now p ime mi is e , Callagha su p ised ma y by a ou ci g o 7 Sep embe ha he e would be o ge e al elec io ha yea , a d he would wai u il 1979 befo e goi g o he polls. Tha che eac ed o his by b a di g he Labou gove me chicke s, a d Libe al Pa y leade David S eel joi ed i , c i icisi g Labou fo u i g sca ed.104

The Labou gove me he faced f esh public u ease abou he di ec io of he cou y a d a damagi g se ies of s ikes du i g he wi e of 1978–۷۹, dubbed he Wi e of Disco e . The Co se va ives a acked he Labou gove me ‘s u employme eco d, usi g adve isi g wi h he sloga Labou Is ‘ Wo ki g. A ge e al elec io was called af e he Callagha mi is y los a mo io of o co fide ce i ea ly 1979. The Co se va ives wo a 44-sea majo i y i he House of Commo s, a d Tha che became he fi s female B i ish p ime mi is e .105

The ‘I o Lady’

I s a d befo e you o igh i my Red S a chiffo eve i g gow , my face sof ly made up a d my fai hai ge ly waved, he I o Lady of he Wes e wo ld.106

I 1976, Tha che gave he B i ai Awake fo eig policy speech which lambas ed he Sovie U io , sayi g i was be o wo ld domi a ce.107 The Sovie A my jou al Red S a epo ed he s a ce i a piece headli ed I o Lady Raises Fea s,108 alludi g o he ema ks o he I o Cu ai .107 The Su day Times cove ed he Red S a a icle he ex day,109 a d Tha che emb aced he epi he a week la e ; i a speech o Fi chley Co se va ives she like ed i o he Duke of Welli g o ‘s ick ame The I o Duke.106 The I o me apho followed he h oughou eve si ce,110 a d would become a ge e ic sob ique fo o he s o g-willed female poli icia s.111

P ime Mi is e of he U i ed Ki gdom: 1979–۱۹۹۰

Tha che became p ime mi is e o 4 May 1979. A ivi g a Dow i g S ee she said, pa aph asi g he P aye of Sai F a cis:

Whe e he e is disco d, may we b i g ha mo y; Whe e he e is e o , may we b i g u h; Whe e he e is doub , may we b i g fai h; A d whe e he e is despai , may we b i g hope.112

I office h oughou he 1980s, Tha che was f eque ly efe ed o as he mos powe ful woma i he wo ld.113114115

Domes ic affai s

Mi o i ies

Tha che was Opposi io leade a d p ime mi is e a a ime of i c eased acial e sio i B i ai . O he local elec io s of 1977, The Eco omis comme ed: The To y ide swamped he smalle pa ies—specifically he Na io al F o NF, which suffe ed a clea decli e f om las yea .116117 He s a di g i he polls had ise by 11% af e a 1978 i e view fo Wo ld i Ac io i which she said he B i ish cha ac e has do e so much fo democ acy, fo law a d do e so much h oughou he wo ld ha if he e is a y fea ha i migh be swamped people a e goi g o eac a d be a he hos ile o hose comi g i , as well as i ma y ways mi o i ies add o he ich ess a d va ie y of his cou y. The mome he mi o i y h ea e s o become a big o e, people ge f igh e ed.118119 I he 1979 ge e al elec io , he Co se va ives had a ac ed vo es f om he NF, whose suppo almos collapsed.120 I a July 1979 mee i g wi h Fo eig Sec e a y Lo d Ca i g o a d Home Sec e a y William Whi elaw, Tha che objec ed o he umbe of Asia immig a s, i he co ex of limi i g he o al of Vie amese boa people allowed o se le i he UK o fewe ha 10,000 ove wo yea s.121

The Quee

As p ime mi is e , Tha che me weekly wi h Quee Elizabe h II o discuss gove me busi ess, a d hei ela io ship came u de sc u i y.122 Campbell (2011a, p. ۴۶۴) s a es:

O e ques io ha co i ued o fasci a e he public abou he phe ome o of a woma P ime Mi is e was how she go o wi h he Quee . The a swe is ha hei ela io s we e pu c iliously co ec , bu he e was li le love los o ei he side. As wo wome of ve y simila age – M s Tha che was six mo hs olde – occupyi g pa allel posi io s a he op of he social py amid, o e he head of gove me , he o he head of s a e, hey we e bou d o be i some se se ivals. M s Tha che ‘s a i ude o he Quee was ambivale . O he o e ha d she had a almos mys ical eve e ce fo he i s i u io of he mo a chy … Ye a he same ime she was yi g o mode ise he cou y a d sweep away ma y of he values a d p ac ices which he mo a chy pe pe ua ed.

Michael Shea, he Quee ‘s p ess sec e a y, i 1986 leaked s o ies of a deep if o The Su day Times. He said ha she fel Tha che ‘s policies we e u ca i g, co f o a io al a d socially divisive.123 Tha che la e w o e: I always fou d he Quee ‘s a i ude owa ds he wo k of he Gove me absolu ely co ec … s o ies of clashes be wee ‘ wo powe ful wome ‘ we e jus oo good o o make up.124

Eco omy a d axa io

Tha che ‘s eco omic policy was i flue ced by mo e a is hi ki g a d eco omis s such as Mil o F iedma a d Ala Wal e s.125 Toge he wi h he fi s cha cello , Geoff ey Howe, she lowe ed di ec axes o i come a d i c eased i di ec axes.126 She i c eased i e es a es o slow he g ow h of he mo ey supply, a d he eby lowe i fla io ;125 i oduced cash limi s o public spe di g a d educed expe di u e o social se vices such as educa io a d housi g.126 Cu s o highe educa io led o Tha che bei g he fi s Oxo ia pos -wa p ime mi is e wi hou a ho o a y doc o a e f om Oxfo d U ive si y, af e a 738–۳۱۹ vo e of he gove i g assembly a d a s ude pe i io .127

Some Hea hi e Co se va ives i he Cabi e , he so-called we s, exp essed doub ove Tha che ‘s policies.128 The 1981 E gla d io s esul ed i he B i ish media discussi g he eed fo a policy U- u . A he 1980 Co se va ive Pa y co fe e ce, Tha che add essed he issue di ec ly, wi h a speech w i e by he playw igh Ro ald Milla ,129 ha o ably i cluded he followi g li es:

To hose wai i g wi h ba ed b ea h fo ha favou i e media ca chph ase, he U u , I have o ly o e hi g o say. You u if you wa o. The lady’s o fo u i g.130

Tha che ‘s job app oval a i g fell o 23% by Decembe 1980, lowe ha eco ded fo a y p evious p ime mi is e .131 As he ecessio of he ea ly 1980s deepe ed, she i c eased axes,132 despi e co ce s exp essed i a Ma ch 1981 s a eme sig ed by 364 leadi g eco omis s,133 which a gued he e was o basis i eco omic heo y … fo he Gove me ‘s belief ha by defla i g dema d hey will b i g i fla io pe ma e ly u de co ol, addi g ha p ese policies will deepe he dep essio , e ode he i dus ial base of ou eco omy a d h ea e i s social a d poli ical s abili y.134

By 1982, he UK bega o expe ie ce sig s of eco omic ecove y;135 i fla io was dow o 8.6% f om a high of 18%, bu u employme was ove 3 millio fo he fi s ime si ce he 1930s.136 By 1983, ove all eco omic g ow h was s o ge , a d i fla io a d mo gage a es had falle o hei lowes levels i 13 yea s, al hough ma ufac u i g employme as a sha e of o al employme fell o jus ove 30%,137 wi h o al u employme emai i g high, peaki g a 3.3 millio i 1984.138

Du i g he 1982 Co se va ive Pa y Co fe e ce, Tha che said: We have do e mo e o oll back he f o ie s of socialism ha a y p evious Co se va ive Gove me .139 She said a he Pa y Co fe e ce he followi g yea ha he B i ish people had comple ely ejec ed s a e socialism a d u de s ood he s a e has o sou ce of mo ey o he ha mo ey which people ea hemselves … The e is o such hi g as public mo ey; he e is o ly axpaye s’ mo ey.140

By 1987, u employme was falli g, he eco omy was s able a d s o g, a d i fla io was low. Opi io polls showed a comfo able Co se va ive lead, a d local cou cil elec io esul s had also bee successful, p omp i g Tha che o call a ge e al elec io fo 11 Ju e ha yea , despi e he deadli e fo a elec io s ill bei g 12 mo hs away. The elec io saw Tha che e-elec ed fo a hi d successive e m.141

Tha che had bee fi mly opposed o B i ish membe ship of he Excha ge Ra e Mecha ism (ERM, a p ecu so o Eu opea Eco omic a d Mo e a y U io ), believi g ha i would co s ai he B i ish eco omy,142 despi e he u gi g of bo h Cha cello of he Excheque Nigel Lawso a d Fo eig Sec e a y Geoff ey Howe;143 i Oc obe 1990 she was pe suaded by Joh Majo , Lawso ‘s successo as Cha cello , o joi he ERM a wha p oved o be oo high a a e.144

Tha che efo med local gove me axes by eplaci g domes ic a es (a ax based o he omi al e al value of a home) wi h he Commu i y Cha ge (o poll ax) i which he same amou was cha ged o each adul eside .145 The ew ax was i oduced i Sco la d i 1989 a d i E gla d a d Wales he followi g yea ,146 a d p oved o be amo g he mos u popula policies of he p emie ship.145 Public disquie culmi a ed i a 70,000 o 200,000-s o g147 demo s a io i Lo do i Ma ch 1990; he demo s a io a ou d T afalga Squa e de e io a ed i o io s, leavi g 113 people i ju ed a d 340 u de a es .148 The Commu i y Cha ge was abolished i 1991 by he successo , Joh Majo .148 I has si ce a spi ed ha Tha che he self had failed o egis e fo he ax, a d was h ea e ed wi h fi a cial pe al ies if she did o e u he fo m.149

I dus ial ela io s

Tha che believed ha he ade u io s we e ha mful o bo h o di a y ade u io is s a d he public.150 She was commi ed o educi g he powe of he u io s, whose leade ship she accused of u de mi i g pa liame a y democ acy a d eco omic pe fo ma ce h ough s ike ac io .151 Seve al u io s lau ched s ikes i espo se o legisla io i oduced o limi hei powe , bu esis a ce eve ually collapsed.152 O ly 39% of u io membe s vo ed Labou i he 1983 ge e al elec io .153 Acco di g o he BBC’s poli ical co espo de i 2004, Tha che ma aged o des oy he powe of he ade u io s fo almos a ge e a io .154 The mi e s’ s ike of 1984–۸۵ was he bigges a d mos devas a i g co f o a io be wee he u io s a d he Tha che gove me .155

I Ma ch 1984, he Na io al Coal Boa d (NCB) p oposed o close 20 of he 174 s a e-ow ed mi es a d cu 20,000 jobs ou of 187,000.156157158 Two- hi ds of he cou y’s mi e s, led by he Na io al U io of Mi ewo ke s (NUM) u de A hu Sca gill, dow ed ools i p o es .156159160 Howeve , Sca gill efused o hold a ballo o he s ike,161 havi g p eviously los h ee ballo s o a a io al s ike (i Ja ua y a d Oc obe 1982, a d Ma ch 1983).162 This led o he s ike bei g decla ed illegal by he High Cou of Jus ice.163164

Tha che efused o mee he u io ‘s dema ds a d compa ed he mi e s’ dispu e o he Falkla ds Wa , decla i g i a speech i 1984: We had o figh he e emy wi hou i he Falkla ds. We always have o be awa e of he e emy wi hi , which is much mo e difficul o figh a d mo e da ge ous o libe y.165 Tha che ‘s oppo e s mis ep ese ed he wo ds as i dica i g co emp fo he wo ki g class a d have bee employed i c i icism of he eve si ce.166

Af e a yea ou o s ike i Ma ch 1985, he NUM leade ship co ceded wi hou a deal. The cos o he eco omy was es ima ed o be a leas £۱٫۵ billio , a d he s ike was blamed fo much of he pou d’s fall agai s he US dolla .167 Tha che eflec ed o he e d of he s ike i he s a eme ha if a yo e has wo i was he mi e s who s ayed a wo k a d all hose ha have kep B i ai goi g.168

The gove me closed 25 u p ofi able coal mi es i 1985, a d by 1992 a o al of 97 mi es had bee closed;158 hose ha emai ed we e p iva ised i 1994.169 The esul i g closu e of 150 coal mi es, some of which we e o losi g mo ey, esul ed i he loss of e s of housa ds of jobs a d had he effec of devas a i g e i e commu i ies.158 S ikes had helped b i g dow Hea h’s gove me , a d Tha che was de e mi ed o succeed whe e he had failed. He s a egy of p epa i g fuel s ocks, appoi i g ha dli e Ia MacG ego as NCB leade , a d e su i g ha police we e adequa ely ai ed a d equipped wi h io gea co ibu ed o he iumph ove he s iki g mi e s.170

The umbe of s oppages ac oss he UK peaked a 4,583 i 1979, whe mo e ha 29 millio wo ki g days had bee los . I 1984, he yea of he mi e s’ s ike, he e we e 1,221, esul i g i he loss of mo e ha 27 millio wo ki g days. S oppages he fell s eadily h oughou he es of Tha che ‘s p emie ship; i 1990, he e we e 630 a d fewe ha 2 millio wo ki g days los , a d hey co i ued o fall he eaf e .171 Tha che ‘s e u e also wi essed a sha p decli e i ade u io de si y, wi h he pe ce age of wo ke s belo gi g o a ade u io falli g f om 57.3% i 1979 o 49.5% i 1985.172 I 1979 up u il Tha che ‘s fi al yea i office, ade u io membe ship also fell, f om 13.5 millio i 1979 o fewe ha 10 millio .173

P iva isa io

The policy of p iva isa io has bee called a c ucial i g edie of Tha che ism.174 Af e he 1983 elec io he sale of s a e u ili ies accele a ed;175 mo e ha £۲۹ billio was aised f om he sale of a io alised i dus ies, a d a o he £۱۸ billio f om he sale of cou cil houses.176 The p ocess of p iva isa io , especially he p epa a io of a io alised i dus ies fo p iva isa io , was associa ed wi h ma ked imp oveme s i pe fo ma ce, pa icula ly i e ms of labou p oduc ivi y.177

Some of he p iva ised i dus ies, i cludi g gas, wa e , a d elec ici y, we e a u al mo opolies fo which p iva isa io i volved li le i c ease i compe i io . The p iva ised i dus ies ha demo s a ed imp oveme some imes did so while s ill u de s a e ow e ship. B i ish S eel Co po a io had made g ea gai s i p ofi abili y while s ill a a io alised i dus y u de he gove me -appoi ed MacG ego chai ma ship, which faced dow ade-u io opposi io o close pla s a d halve he wo kfo ce.178 Regula io was also sig ifica ly expa ded o compe sa e fo he loss of di ec gove me co ol, wi h he fou da io of egula o y bodies such as Of el (1984), Ofgas (1986), a d he Na io al Rive s Au ho i y (1989).179 The e was o clea pa e o he deg ee of compe i io , egula io , a d pe fo ma ce amo g he p iva ised i dus ies.177

I mos cases, p iva isa io be efi ed co sume s i e ms of lowe p ices a d imp oved efficie cy, bu esul s ove all have bee mixed.180 No all p iva ised compa ies have had successful sha e p ice ajec o ies i he lo ge e m.181 A 2010 eview by he IEA s a es: I does seem o be he case ha o ce compe i io a do effec ive egula io was i oduced, pe fo ma ce imp oved ma kedly … Bu I has e o emphasise agai ha he li e a u e is o u a imous.182

Tha che always esis ed p iva isi g B i ish Rail a d was said o have old T a spo Sec e a y Nicholas Ridley: Railway p iva isa io will be he Wa e loo of his gove me . Please eve me io he ailways o me agai . Sho ly befo e he esig a io i 1990, she accep ed he a gume s fo p iva isa io , which he successo Joh Majo impleme ed i 1994.183

The p iva isa io of public asse s was combi ed wi h fi a cial de egula io o fuel eco omic g ow h. Cha cello Geoff ey Howe abolished he UK’s excha ge co ols i 1979,184 which allowed mo e capi al o be i ves ed i fo eig ma ke s, a d he Big Ba g of 1986 emoved ma y es ic io s o he Lo do S ock Excha ge.184

No he I ela d

I 1980 a d 1981, P ovisio al I ish Republica A my (PIRA) a d I ish Na io al Libe a io A my (INLA) p iso e s i No he I ela d’s Maze P iso ca ied ou hu ge s ikes o egai he s a us of poli ical p iso e s ha had bee emoved i 1976 by he p ecedi g Labou gove me .185 Bobby Sa ds bega he 1981 s ike, sayi g ha he would fas u il dea h u less p iso i ma es wo co cessio s ove hei livi g co di io s.185 Tha che efused o cou e a ce a e u o poli ical s a us fo he p iso e s, havi g decla ed C ime is c ime is c ime; i is o poli ical,185 Neve heless, he B i ish gove me p iva ely co ac ed epublica leade s i a bid o b i g he hu ge s ikes o a e d.186 Af e he dea hs of Sa ds a d i e o he s, he s ike e ded. Some igh s we e es o ed o pa amili a y p iso e s, bu o official ecog i io of poli ical s a us.187 Viole ce i No he I ela d escala ed sig ifica ly du i g he hu ge s ikes.188

Tha che a owly escaped i ju y i a IRA assassi a io a emp a a B igh o ho el ea ly i he mo i g o 12 Oc obe 1984.189 Five people we e killed, i cludi g he wife of mi is e Joh Wakeham. Tha che was s ayi g a he ho el o p epa e fo he Co se va ive Pa y co fe e ce, which she i sis ed should ope as scheduled he followi g day.189 She delive ed he speech as pla ed,190 hough ew i e f om he o igi al d af ,191 i a move ha was widely suppo ed ac oss he poli ical spec um a d e ha ced he popula i y wi h he public.192

O 6 Novembe 1981, Tha che a d Taoiseach (I ish p ime mi is e ) Ga e Fi zGe ald had es ablished he A glo-I ish I e -Gove me al Cou cil, a fo um fo mee i gs be wee he wo gove me s.187 O 15 Novembe 1985, Tha che a d Fi zGe ald sig ed he Hillsbo ough A glo-I ish Ag eeme , which ma ked he fi s ime a B i ish gove me had give he Republic of I ela d a adviso y ole i he gove a ce of No he I ela d. I p o es , he Uls e Says No moveme led by Ia Paisley a ac ed 100,000 o a ally i Belfas ,193 Ia Gow, la e assassi a ed by he PIRA, esig ed as Mi is e of S a e i he HM T easu y,194195 a d all 15 U io is MPs esig ed hei pa liame a y sea s; o ly o e was o e u ed i he subseque by-elec io s o 23 Ja ua y 1986.196

E vi o me

Tha che suppo ed a ac ive clima e p o ec io policy; she was i s ume al i he passi g of he E vi o me al P o ec io Ac 1990,197 he fou di g of he Hadley Ce e fo Clima e Resea ch a d P edic io ,198 he es ablishme of he I e gove me al Pa el o Clima e Cha ge,199 a d he a ifica io of he Mo eal P o ocol o p ese vi g he ozo e.200

Tha che helped o pu clima e cha ge, acid ai a d ge e al pollu io i he B i ish mai s eam i he la e 1980s,199201 calli g fo a global ea y o clima e cha ge i 1989.202 He speeches i cluded o e o he Royal Socie y i 1988,203 followed by a o he o he UN Ge e al Assembly i 1989.

Fo eig affai s

Tha che appoi ed Lo d Ca i g o , a e obled membe of he pa y a d fo me Sec e a y of S a e fo Defe ce, o u he Fo eig Office i 1979.204 Al hough co side ed a we , he avoided domes ic affai s a d go alo g well wi h Tha che . O e issue was wha o do wi h Rhodesia, whe e he whi e-mi o i y had de e mi ed o ule he p ospe ous, black-majo i y b eakaway colo y i he face of ove whelmi g i e a io al c i icism. Wi h he 1975 Po uguese collapse i he co i e , Sou h Af ica (which had bee Rhodesia’s chief suppo e ) ealised ha hei ally was a liabili y; black ule was i evi able, a d he Tha che gove me b oke ed a peaceful solu io o e d he Rhodesia Bush Wa i Decembe 1979 via he La cas e House Ag eeme . The co fe e ce a La cas e House was a e ded by Rhodesia p ime mi is e Ia Smi h, as well as by he key black leade s: Muzo ewa, Mugabe, Nkomo a d To goga a. The esul was he ew Zimbabwea a io u de black ule i 1980.205

Cold Wa

Tha che ‘s fi s fo eig -policy c isis came wi h he 1979 Sovie i vasio of Afgha is a . She co dem ed he i vasio , said i showed he ba k up cy of a dé e e policy a d helped co vi ce some B i ish a hle es o boyco he 1980 Moscow Olympics. She gave weak suppo o US p eside Jimmy Ca e who ied o pu ish he USSR wi h eco omic sa c io s. B i ai ‘s eco omic si ua io was p eca ious, a d mos of NATO was eluc a o cu ade ies.206 Tha che eve heless gave he go-ahead fo Whi ehall o app ove MI6 (alo g wi h he SAS) o u de ake dis up ive ac io i Afgha is a .207 As well wo ki g wi h he CIA i Ope a io Cyclo e, hey also supplied weapo s, ai i g a d i ellige ce o he mujaheddi .208

The Fi a cial Times epo ed i 2011 ha he gove me had sec e ly supplied I aq u de Saddam Hussei wi h o -le hal mili a y equipme si ce 1981.209210

Havi g wi hd aw fo mal ecog i io f om he Pol Po egime i 1979,211 he Tha che gove me backed he Khme Rouge keepi g hei UN sea af e hey we e ous ed f om powe i Cambodia by he Cambodia –Vie amese Wa . Al hough Tha che de ied i a he ime,212 i was evealed i 1991 ha , while o di ec ly ai i g a y Khme Rouge,213 f om 1983 he Special Ai Se vice (SAS) was se o sec e ly ai he a med fo ces of he Cambodia o -commu is esis a ce ha emai ed loyal o P i ce No odom Siha ouk a d his fo me p ime mi is e So Sa i he figh agai s he Vie amese-backed puppe egime.214215

Tha che was o e of he fi s Wes e leade s o espo d wa mly o efo mis Sovie leade Mikhail Go bachev. Followi g Reaga –Go bachev summi mee i gs a d efo ms e ac ed by Go bachev i he USSR, she decla ed i Novembe 1988 ha We’ e o i a Cold Wa ow, bu a he i a ew ela io ship much wide ha he Cold Wa eve was.216 She we o a s a e visi o he Sovie U io i 1984 a d me wi h Go bachev a d Cou cil of Mi is e s chai ma Nikolai Ryzhkov.217

Ties wi h he US

Despi e opposi e pe so ali ies, Tha che bo ded quickly wi h US p eside Ro ald Reaga . b 5 She gave s o g suppo o he Reaga admi is a io ‘s Cold Wa policies based o hei sha ed dis us of commu ism.152 A sha p disag eeme came i 1983 whe Reaga did o co sul wi h he o he i vasio of G e ada.218219

Du i g he fi s yea as p ime mi is e she suppo ed NATO’s decisio o deploy US uclea c uise a d Pe shi g II missiles i Wes e Eu ope,152 pe mi i g he US o s a io mo e ha 160 c uise missiles a RAF G ee ham Commo , s a i g i Novembe 1983 a d igge i g mass p o es s by he Campaig fo Nuclea Disa mame .152 She bough he T ide uclea missile subma i e sys em f om he US o eplace Pola is, ipli g he UK’s uclea fo ces220 a a eve ual cos of mo e ha £۱۲ billio (a 1996–۹۷ p ices).221 Tha che ‘s p efe e ce fo defe ce ies wi h he US was demo s a ed i he Wes la d affai of 1985–۸۶, whe she ac ed wi h colleagues o allow he s uggli g helicop e ma ufac u e Wes la d o efuse a akeove offe f om he I alia fi m Agus a i favou of he ma ageme ‘s p efe ed op io , a li k wi h Siko sky Ai c af . Defe ce Sec e a y Michael Hesel i e, who had suppo ed he Agus a deal, esig ed f om he gove me i p o es .222

I Ap il 1986 she pe mi ed US F-111s o use Royal Ai Fo ce bases fo he bombi g of Libya i e alia io fo he alleged Libya bombi g of a Be li disco hèque,223 ci i g he igh of self-defe ce u de A icle 51 of he UN Cha e .224 b 6 Polls sugges ed ha fewe ha o e i h ee B i ish ci ize s app oved of he decisio .226

Tha che was i he US o a s a e visi whe I aqi leade Saddam Hussei i vaded Kuwai i Augus 1990.227 Du i g he alks wi h P eside Geo ge H. W. Bush, who succeeded Reaga i 1989, she ecomme ded i e ve io ,227 a d pu p essu e o Bush o deploy oops i he Middle Eas o d ive he I aqi A my ou of Kuwai .228 Bush was app ehe sive abou he pla , p omp i g Tha che o ema k o him du i g a elepho e co ve sa io : This was o ime o go wobbly!229230 Tha che ‘s gove me supplied mili a y fo ces o he i e a io al coali io i he build-up o he Gulf Wa , bu she had esig ed by he ime hos ili ies bega o 17 Ja ua y 1991.231232 She applauded he coali io vic o y o he backbe ches, while wa i g ha he vic o ies of peace will ake lo ge ha he ba les of wa .233 I was disclosed i 2017 ha Tha che had sugges ed h ea e i g Saddam wi h chemical weapo s af e he i vasio of Kuwai .234235

C isis i he Sou h A la ic

O 2 Ap il 1982, he uli g mili a y ju a i A ge i a o de ed he i vasio of he B i ish possessio s of he Falkla d Isla ds a d Sou h Geo gia, igge i g he Falkla ds Wa .236 The subseque c isis was a defi i g mome of Tha che ‘s p emie ship.237 A he sugges io of Ha old Macmilla a d Robe A ms o g,237 she se up a d chai ed a small Wa Cabi e (fo mally called ODSA, Ove seas a d Defe ce commi ee, Sou h A la ic) o ove see he co duc of he wa ,238 which by 5–۶ Ap il had au ho ised a d dispa ched a aval ask fo ce o e ake he isla ds.239 A ge i a su e de ed o 14 Ju e a d Ope a io Co po a e was hailed a success, o wi hs a di g he dea hs of 255 B i ish se viceme a d 3 Falkla d Isla de s. A ge i e fa ali ies o alled 649, half of hem af e he uclea -powe ed subma i e HMS Co que o o pedoed a d sa k he c uise ARA Ge e al Belg a o o 2 May.240

Tha che was c i icised fo he eglec of he Falkla ds’ defe ce ha led o he wa , a d especially by Labou MP Tam Dalyell i Pa liame fo he decisio o o pedo he Ge e al Belg a o, bu ove all she was co side ed a compe e a d commi ed wa leade .241 The Falkla ds fac o , a eco omic ecove y begi i g ea ly i 1982, a d a bi e ly divided opposi io all co ibu ed o Tha che ‘s seco d elec io vic o y i 1983.242 Tha che f eque ly efe ed af e he wa o he Falkla ds spi i ;243 Has i gs Je ki s (1983, p. ۳۲۹) sugges s ha his eflec ed he p efe e ce fo he s eamli ed decisio -maki g of he Wa Cabi e ove he pai s aki g deal-maki g of peace ime cabi e gove me .

Nego ia i g Ho g Ko g

I Sep embe 1982 she visi ed Chi a o discuss wi h De g Xiaopi g he sove eig y of Ho g Ko g af e 1997. Chi a was he fi s commu is s a e Tha che had visi ed as p ime mi is e , a d she was he fi s B i ish p ime mi is e o visi Chi a. Th oughou hei mee i g, she sough he PRC’s ag eeme o a co i ued B i ish p ese ce i he e i o y. De g i sis ed ha he PRC’s sove eig y ove Ho g Ko g was o – ego iable bu s a ed his willi g ess o se le he sove eig y issue wi h he B i ish gove me h ough fo mal ego ia io s. Bo h gove me s p omised o mai ai Ho g Ko g’s s abili y a d p ospe i y.244 Af e he wo-yea ego ia io s, Tha che co ceded o he PRC gove me a d sig ed he Si o-B i ish Joi Decla a io i Beiji g i 1984, ag eei g o ha d ove Ho g Ko g’s sove eig y i 1997.245

Apa heid i Sou h Af ica

Despi e sayi g ha she was i favou of peaceful ego ia io s o e d apa heid,246247 Tha che opposed sa c io s imposed o Sou h Af ica by he Commo weal h a d he Eu opea Eco omic Commu i y (EEC).248 She a emp ed o p ese ve ade wi h Sou h Af ica while pe suadi g i s gove me o aba do apa heid. This i cluded cas i g he self as P eside Bo ha’s ca did f ie d, a d i vi i g him o visi he UK i 1984,249 i spi e of he i evi able demo s a io s agai s his gove me .250 Ala Me ydew of he Ca adia b oadcas e BCTV News asked Tha che wha he espo se was o a epo ed ANC s a eme ha hey will a ge B i ish fi ms i Sou h Af ica? o which she la e eplied: … whe he ANC says ha hey will a ge B i ish compa ies … This shows wha a ypical e o is o ga isa io i is. I fough e o ism all my life a d if mo e people fough i , a d we we e all mo e successful, we should o have i a d I hope ha eve yo e i his hall will hi k i is igh o go o figh i g e o ism.251 Du i g his visi o B i ai five mo hs af e his elease f om p iso , Nelso Ma dela p aised Tha che : She is a e emy of apa heid … We have much o ha k he fo .249

Eu ope

Tha che a d he pa y suppo ed B i ish membe ship of he EEC i he 1975 a io al efe e dum253 a d he Si gle Eu opea Ac of 1986, a d ob ai ed he UK eba e o co ibu io s,254 bu she believed ha he ole of he o ga isa io should be limi ed o e su i g f ee ade a d effec ive compe i io , a d fea ed ha he EEC app oach was a odds wi h he views o smalle gove me a d de egula io .255 Believi g ha he si gle ma ke would esul i poli ical i eg a io ,254 Tha che ‘s opposi io o fu he Eu opea i eg a io became mo e p o ou ced du i g he p emie ship a d pa icula ly af e he hi d gove me i 1987.256 I he B uges speech i 1988, Tha che ou li ed he opposi io o p oposals f om he EEC,252 fo e u e of he Eu opea U io , fo a fede al s uc u e a d i c eased ce alisa io of decisio -maki g:

We have o successfully olled back he f o ie s of he s a e i B i ai , o ly o see hem e-imposed a a Eu opea level, wi h a Eu opea supe -s a e exe cisi g a ew domi a ce f om B ussels.255

Sha i g he co ce s of F e ch p eside F a çois Mi e a d,257 Tha che was i i ially opposed o Ge ma eu ifica io , b 7 elli g Go bachev ha i would lead o a cha ge o pos wa bo de s, a d we ca o allow ha because such a developme would u de mi e he s abili y of he whole i e a io al si ua io a d could e da ge ou secu i y. She exp essed co ce ha a u i ed Ge ma y would alig i self mo e closely wi h he Sovie U io a d move away f om NATO.259

I Ma ch 1990, Tha che held a Cheque s semi a o he subjec of Ge ma eu ifica io ha was a e ded by membe s of he cabi e a d his o ia s such as No ma S o e, Geo ge U ba , Timo hy Ga o Ash a d Go do A. C aig. Du i g he semi a , Tha che desc ibed wha U ba called ‘saloo ba clichés’ abou he Ge ma cha ac e , i cludi g ‘a gs , agg essive ess, asse ive ess, bullyi g, ego ism, i fe io i y complex a d se ime ali y’. Those p ese we e shocked o hea Tha che ‘s u e a ces a d appalled a how she was appa e ly u awa e abou he pos -wa Ge ma collec ive guil a d Ge ma s’ a emp s o wo k h ough hei pas .260 The wo ds of he mee i g we e leaked by he fo eig -policy adviso Cha les Powell a d, subseque ly, he comme s we e me wi h fie ce backlash a d co ove sy.261

Du i g he same mo h, Ge ma cha cello Helmu Kohl eassu ed Tha che ha he would keep he i fo med of all his i e io s abou u ifica io ,262 a d ha he was p epa ed o disclose ma e s which eve his cabi e would o k ow.262

Challe ges o leade ship a d esig a io

Du i g he p emie ship Tha che had he seco d-lowes ave age app oval a i g (40%) of a y pos -wa p ime mi is e . Si ce Nigel Lawso ‘s esig a io as Cha cello i Oc obe 1989,263 polls co sis e ly showed ha she was less popula ha he pa y.264 A self-desc ibed co vic io poli icia , Tha che always i sis ed ha she did o ca e abou he poll a i gs a d poi ed i s ead o he u bea e elec io eco d.265

I Decembe 1989, Tha che was challe ged fo he leade ship of he Co se va ive Pa y by he li le-k ow backbe ch MP Si A ho y Meye .266 Of he 374 Co se va ive MPs eligible o vo e, 314 vo ed fo Tha che a d 33 fo Meye . He suppo e s i he pa y viewed he esul as a success a d ejec ed sugges io s ha he e was disco e wi hi he pa y.266

Opi io polls i Sep embe 1990 epo ed ha Labou had es ablished a 14% lead ove he Co se va ives,267 a d by Novembe , he Co se va ives had bee aili g Labou fo 18 mo hs.264 These a i gs, oge he wi h Tha che ‘s comba ive pe so ali y a d e de cy o ove ide collegia e opi io , co ibu ed o fu he disco e wi hi he pa y.268

I July 1989, Tha che emoved Geoff ey Howe as fo eig sec e a y af e he a d Lawso had fo ced he o ag ee o a pla fo B i ai o joi he Eu opea Excha ge Ra e Mecha ism (ERM). B i ai joi ed he ERM i Oc obe 1990.

O 1 Novembe 1990, Howe, by he he las emai i g membe of Tha che ‘s o igi al 1979 cabi e , esig ed as depu y p ime mi is e , os e sibly ove he ope hos ili y o moves owa ds Eu opea mo e a y u io .267269 I his esig a io speech o 13 Novembe , which was i s ume al i Tha che ‘s dow fall,270 Howe a acked Tha che ‘s ope ly dismissive a i ude o he gove me ‘s p oposal fo a ew Eu opea cu e cy compe i g agai s exis i g cu e cies (a ha d ECU):

How o ea h a e he Cha cello a d he Gove o of he Ba k of E gla d, comme di g he ha d ECU as hey s ive o, o be ake as se ious pa icipa s i he deba e agai s ha ki d of backg ou d oise? I believe ha bo h he Cha cello a d he Gove o a e c icke i g e husias s, so I hope ha he e is o mo opoly of c icke i g me apho s. I is a he like se di g you ope i g ba sme o he c ease o ly fo hem o fi d, he mome he fi s balls a e bowled, ha hei ba s have bee b oke befo e he game by he eam cap ai .271272

O 14 Novembe , Michael Hesel i e mou ed a challe ge fo he leade ship of he Co se va ive Pa y.273274 Opi io polls had i dica ed ha he would give he Co se va ives a a io al lead ove Labou .275 Al hough Tha che led o he fi s ballo wi h he vo es of 204 Co se va ive MPs (54.8%) o 152 vo es (40.9%) fo Hesel i e, wi h 16 abs e io s, she was fou vo es sho of he equi ed 15% majo i y. A seco d ballo was he efo e ecessa y.276 Tha che i i ially decla ed he i e io o figh o a d figh o wi he seco d ballo , bu co sul a io wi h he cabi e pe suaded he o wi hd aw.268277 Af e holdi g a audie ce wi h he Quee , calli g o he wo ld leade s, a d maki g o e fi al Commo s speech,278 o 28 Novembe she lef Dow i g S ee i ea s. She epo edly ega ded he ous i g as a be ayal.279 He esig a io was a shock o ma y ou side B i ai , wi h such fo eig obse ve s as He y Kissi ge a d Go bachev exp essi g p iva e co s e a io .280

Tha che was eplaced as head of gove me a d pa y leade by Cha cello Joh Majo , whose lead ove Hesel i e i he seco d ballo was sufficie fo Hesel i e o d op ou . Majo ove saw a up u i Co se va ive suppo i he 17 mo hs leadi g o he 1992 ge e al elec io , a d led he pa y o a fou h successive vic o y o 9 Ap il 1992.281 Tha che had lobbied fo Majo i he leade ship co es agai s Hesel i e, bu he suppo fo him wa ed i la e yea s.282

La e life

Re u o backbe ches: 1990–۱۹۹۲

Tha che e u ed o he backbe ches as a co s i ue cy pa liame a ia af e leavi g he p emie ship.283 He domes ic app oval a i g ecove ed af e he esig a io , hough public opi io emai ed divided o whe he he gove me had bee good fo he cou y.263284 Aged 66, she e i ed f om he House of Commo s a he 1992 ge e al elec io , sayi g ha leavi g he Commo s would allow he mo e f eedom o speak he mi d.285

Pos -Commo s: 1992–۲۰۰۳

O leavi g he Commo s, Tha che became he fi s fo me B i ish p ime mi is e o se up a fou da io ;286 he B i ish wi g of he Ma ga e Tha che Fou da io was dissolved i 2005 due o fi a cial difficul ies.287 She w o e wo volumes of memoi s, The Dow i g S ee Yea s (1993) a d The Pa h o Powe (1995). I 1991, she a d he husba d De is moved o a house i Ches e Squa e, a eside ial ga de squa e i ce al Lo do ‘s Belg avia dis ic .288

Tha che was hi ed by he obacco compa y Philip Mo is as a geopoli ical co sul a i July 1992, fo $250,000 pe yea a d a a ual co ibu io of $250,000 o he fou da io .289 Tha che ea ed $50,000 fo each speech she delive ed.290

Tha che became a advoca e of C oa ia a d Slove ia i depe de ce.291 Comme i g o he Yugoslav Wa s, i a 1991 i e view fo C oa ia Radio elevisio , she was c i ical of Wes e gove me s fo o ecog isi g he b eakaway epublics of C oa ia a d Slove ia as i depe de a d fo o supplyi g hem wi h a ms af e he Se bia -led Yugoslav A my a acked.292

I Augus 1992 she called fo NATO o s op he Se bia assaul o Go ažde a d Sa ajevo, o e d e h ic clea si g du i g he Bos ia Wa , compa i g he si ua io i Bos ia–He zegovi a o he ba ba i ies of Hi le ‘s a d S ali ‘s.293

She made a se ies of speeches i he Lo ds c i icisi g he Maas ich T ea y,285 desc ibi g i as a ea y oo fa a d s a ed: I could eve have sig ed his ea y.294 She ci ed A. V. Dicey whe a gui g ha , as all h ee mai pa ies we e i favou of he ea y, he people should have hei say i a efe e dum.295

Tha che se ved as ho o a y cha cello of he College of William Ma y i Vi gi ia f om 1993 o 2000,296 while also se vi g as cha cello of he p iva e U ive si y of Bucki gham f om 1992 o 1998,297298 a u ive si y she had fo mally ope ed i 1976 as he fo me educa io sec e a y.298

Af e To y Blai ‘s elec io as Labou Pa y leade i 1994, Tha che p aised Blai as p obably he mos fo midable Labou leade si ce Hugh Gai skell, addi g: I see a lo of socialism behi d hei f o be ch, bu o i M Blai . I hi k he ge ui ely has moved.299 Blai espo ded i ki d: She was a ho oughly de e mi ed pe so , a d ha is a admi able quali y.300

I 1998, Tha che called fo he elease of fo me Chilea dic a o Augus o Pi oche whe Spai had him a es ed a d sough o y him fo huma igh s viola io s. She ci ed he help he gave B i ai du i g he Falkla ds Wa .301 I 1999, she visi ed him while he was u de house a es ea Lo do .302 Pi oche was eleased i Ma ch 2000 o medical g ou ds by Home Sec e a y Jack S aw.303

A he 2001 ge e al elec io , Tha che suppo ed he Co se va ive campaig , as she had do e i 1992 a d 1997, a d i he Co se va ive leade ship elec io followi g i s defea , she e do sed Iai Du ca Smi h ove Ke e h Cla ke.304 I 2002 she e cou aged Geo ge W. Bush o agg essively ackle he u fi ished busi ess of I aq u de Saddam Hussei ,305 a d p aised Blai fo his s o g, bold leade ship i s a di g wi h Bush i he I aq Wa .306

She b oached he same subjec i he S a ec af : S a egies fo a Cha gi g Wo ld, which was published i Ap il 2002 a d dedica ed o Ro ald Reaga , w i i g ha he e would be o peace i he Middle Eas u il Saddam was oppled. He book also said ha Is ael mus ade la d fo peace a d ha he Eu opea U io (EU) was a fu dame ally u efo mable, classic u opia p ojec , a mo ume o he va i y of i ellec uals, a p og amme whose i evi able des i y is failu e.307 She a gued ha B i ai should e ego ia e i s e ms of membe ship o else leave he EU a d joi he No h Ame ica F ee T ade A ea.308

Followi g seve al small s okes she was advised by he doc o s o o e gage i fu he public speaki g.309 I Ma ch 2002 she a ou ced ha , o doc o s’ advice, she would ca cel all pla ed speaki g e gageme s a d accep o mo e.310

Bei g P ime Mi is e is a lo ely job. I a se se, i ough o be: you ca o lead f om he c owd. Bu wi h De is he e I was eve alo e. Wha a ma . Wha a husba d. Wha a f ie d.

Tha che (1993, p. ۲۳)

O 26 Ju e 2003, Tha che ‘s husba d Si De is died aged 88;311 he was c ema ed o 3 July a Mo lake C ema o ium i Lo do .312

Fi al yea s: 2003–۲۰۱۳

O 11 Ju e 2004, Tha che (agai s doc o s’ o de s) a e ded he s a e fu e al se vice fo Ro ald Reaga .313 She delive ed he eulogy via video ape; i view of he heal h, he message had bee p e- eco ded seve al mo hs ea lie .314315 Tha che flew o Califo ia wi h he Reaga e ou age, a d a e ded he memo ial se vice a d i e me ce emo y fo he p eside a he Ro ald Reaga P eside ial Lib a y.316

I 2005, Tha che c i icised how Blai had decided o i vade I aq wo yea s p eviously. Al hough she s ill suppo ed he i e ve io o opple Saddam Hussei , she said ha (as a scie is ) she would always look fo fac s, evide ce a d p oof befo e commi i g he a med fo ces.232 She celeb a ed he 80 h bi hday o 13 Oc obe a he Ma da i O ie al Ho el i Hyde Pa k, Lo do ; gues s i cluded he Quee , he Duke of Edi bu gh, P i cess Alexa d a a d To y Blai .317 Geoff ey Howe, Ba o Howe of Abe avo , was also i a e da ce a d said of his fo me leade : He eal iumph was o have a sfo med o jus o e pa y bu wo, so ha whe Labou did eve ually e u , he g ea bulk of Tha che ism was accep ed as i eve sible.318

I 2006, Tha che a e ded he official Washi g o , D.C. memo ial se vice o commemo a e he fif h a ive sa y of he 11 Sep embe a acks o he US. She was a gues of vice-p eside Dick Che ey a d me sec e a y of s a e Co doleezza Rice du i g he visi .319 I Feb ua y 2007 Tha che became he fi s livi g B i ish p ime mi is e o be ho ou ed wi h a s a ue i he Houses of Pa liame . The b o ze s a ue s ood opposi e ha of he poli ical he o, Wi s o Chu chill,320 a d was u veiled o 21 Feb ua y 2007 wi h Tha che i a e da ce; she ema ked i he Membe s’ Lobby of he Commo s: I migh have p efe ed i o – bu b o ze will do … I wo ‘ us .320

Tha che was a public suppo e of he P ague Decla a io o Eu opea Co scie ce a d Commu ism a d he esul i g P ague P ocess, a d se a public le e of suppo o i s p ecedi g co fe e ce.321

Af e collapsi g a a House of Lo ds di e , Tha che , suffe i g low blood p essu e,322 was admi ed o S Thomas’ Hospi al i ce al Lo do o 7 Ma ch 2008 fo es s. I 2009 she was hospi alised agai whe she fell a d b oke he a m.323 Tha che e u ed o 10 Dow i g S ee i la e Novembe 2009 fo he u veili g of a official po ai by a is Richa d S o e,324 a u usual ho ou fo a livi g fo me p ime mi is e . S o e was p eviously commissio ed o pai po ai s of he Quee a d Quee Mo he .324

O 4 July 2011, Tha che was o a e d a ce emo y fo he u veili g of a 10 f (3.0 m) s a ue o Ro ald Reaga , ou side he US Embassy i Lo do , bu was u able o a e d due o he f ail heal h.325 She las a e ded a si i g of he House of Lo ds o 19 July 2010,326 a d o 30 July 2011 i was a ou ced ha he office i he Lo ds had bee closed.327 Ea lie ha mo h, Tha che was amed he mos compe e p ime mi is e of he pas 30 yea s i a Ipsos MORI poll.328

Tha che ‘s daugh e Ca ol fi s evealed ha he mo he had deme ia i 2005,329 sayi g Mum does ‘ ead much a y mo e because of he memo y loss. I he 2008 memoi , Ca ol w o e ha he mo he could ha dly emembe he begi i g of a se e ce by he ime she go o he e d.329 She la e ecou ed how she was fi s s uck by he mo he ‘s deme ia whe , i co ve sa io , Tha che co fused he Falkla ds a d Yugoslav co flic s; she ecalled he pai of eedi g o ell he mo he epea edly ha he husba d De is was dead.330

Dea h a d fu e al: 2013

Tha che died o 8 Ap il 2013, a he age of 87, af e suffe i g a s oke. She had bee s ayi g a a sui e i he Ri z Ho el i Lo do si ce Decembe 2012 af e havi g difficul y wi h s ai s a he Ches e Squa e home i Belg avia.331 He dea h ce ifica e lis ed he p ima y causes of dea h as a ce eb ovascula accide a d epea ed a sie ischaemic a ack;332 seco da y causes we e lis ed as a ca ci oma of he bladde a d deme ia.332

Reac io s o he ews of Tha che ‘s dea h we e mixed ac oss he UK, a gi g f om ibu es laudi g he as B i ai ‘s g ea es -eve peace ime p ime mi is e o public celeb a io s of he dea h a d exp essio s of ha ed a d pe so alised vi iol.333

De ails of Tha che ‘s fu e al had bee ag eed wi h he i adva ce.334 She eceived a ce emo ial fu e al, i cludi g full mili a y ho ou s, wi h a chu ch se vice a S Paul’s Ca hed al o 17 Ap il.335336

Quee Elizabe h II a d he Duke of Edi bu gh a e ded he fu e al,337 ma ki g o ly he seco d ime i he Quee ‘s eig ha she a e ded he fu e al of a y of he fo me p ime mi is e s, af e ha of Chu chill, who eceived a s a e fu e al i 1965.338

Af e he se vice a S Paul’s, Tha che ‘s body was c ema ed a Mo lake, whe e he husba d had bee c ema ed. O 28 Sep embe , a se vice fo Tha che was held i he All Sai s Chapel of he Royal Hospi al Chelsea’s Ma ga e Tha che I fi ma y. I a p iva e ce emo y, Tha che ‘s ashes we e i e ed i he hospi al’s g ou ds, ex o he husba d’s.339340

Legacy

Poli ical impac

Tha che ism ep ese ed a sys ema ic a d decisive ove haul of he pos -wa co se sus, whe eby he majo poli ical pa ies la gely ag eed o he ce al hemes of Key esia ism, he welfa e s a e, a io alised i dus y, a d close egula io of he eco omy, a d high axes. Tha che ge e ally suppo ed he welfa e s a e while p oposi g o id i of abuses. b 8

She p omised i 1982 ha he highly popula Na io al Heal h Se vice was safe i ou ha ds.341 A fi s , she ig o ed he ques io of p iva isi g a io alised i dus ies; heavily i flue ced by igh -wi g hi k a ks, a d especially by Si Kei h Joseph,342 Tha che b oade ed he a ack. Tha che ism came o efe o he policies as well as aspec s of he e hical ou look a d pe so al s yle, i cludi g mo al absolu ism, a io alism, libe al i dividualism, a d a u comp omisi g app oach o achievi g poli ical goals.343344 b 9

Tha che defi ed he ow poli ical philosophy, i a majo a d co ove sial b eak wi h he o e- a io co se va ism345 of he p edecesso Edwa d Hea h, i a 1987 i e view published i Woma ‘s Ow magazi e:

I hi k we have go e h ough a pe iod whe oo ma y child e a d people have bee give o u de s a d I have a p oblem, i is he Gove me ‘s job o cope wi h i ! o I have a p oblem, I will go a d ge a g a o cope wi h i ! I am homeless, he Gove me mus house me! a d so hey a e cas i g hei p oblems o socie y a d who is socie y? The e is o such hi g! The e a e i dividual me a d wome a d he e a e families a d o gove me ca do a y hi g excep h ough people a d people look o hemselves fi s . I is ou du y o look af e ou selves a d he also o help look af e ou eighbou a d life is a ecip ocal busi ess a d people have go he e i leme s oo much i mi d wi hou he obliga io s.346

Ove view

The umbe of adul s ow i g sha es ose f om 7 pe ce o 25 pe ce du i g he e u e, a d mo e ha a millio families bough hei cou cil houses, givi g a i c ease f om 55 pe ce o 67 pe ce i ow e -occupie s f om 1979 o 1990. The houses we e sold a a discou of 33–۵۵ pe ce , leadi g o la ge p ofi s fo some ew ow e s. Pe so al weal h ose by 80 pe ce i eal e ms du i g he 1980s, mai ly due o isi g house p ices a d i c eased ea i gs. Sha es i he p iva ised u ili ies we e sold below hei ma ke value o e su e quick a d wide sales, a he ha maximise a io al i come.347348

The Tha che yea s we e also ma ked by pe iods of high u employme a d social u es ,349350 a d ma y c i ics o he lef of he poli ical spec um faul he eco omic policies fo he u employme level; ma y of he a eas affec ed by mass u employme as well as he mo e a is eco omic policies emai ed bligh ed fo decades, by such social p oblems as d ug abuse a d family b eakdow .351 U employme did o fall below i s May 1979 level du i g he e u e,352 o ly falli g below i s Ap il 1979 level i 1990.353 The lo g- e m effec s of he policies o ma ufac u i g emai co e ious.354355

Speaki g i Sco la d i 2009, Tha che i sis ed she had o eg e s a d was igh o i oduce he poll ax a d wi hd aw subsidies f om ou da ed i dus ies, whose ma ke s we e i e mi al decli e, subsidies ha c ea ed he cul u e of depe de cy, which had do e such damage o B i ai .356 Poli ical eco omis Susa S a ge e med he eolibe al fi a cial g ow h model casi o capi alism, eflec i g he view ha specula io a d fi a cial adi g we e becomi g mo e impo a o he eco omy ha i dus y.357

C i ics o he lef desc ibe he as divisive358 a d say she co do ed g eed a d selfish ess.349 Leadi g Welsh poli icia Rhod i Mo ga ,359 amo g o he s,360 cha ac e ised Tha che as a Ma mi e figu e. Jou alis Michael Whi e, w i i g i he af e ma h of he 2007–۰۸ fi a cial c isis, challe ged he view ha he efo ms we e s ill a e be efi .361 O he s co side he app oach o have bee a mixed bag362363 a d a Cu a e’s egg.364

Tha che did li le o adva ce he poli ical cause of wome ei he wi hi he pa y o he gove me .365 Some B i ish femi is s ega ded he as a e emy.366 Ju e Pu vis of Wome ‘s His o y Review says ha , al hough Tha che had s uggled labo iously agai s he **7**is p ejudices of he day o ise o he op, she made o effo o ease he pa h fo o he wome .367 Tha che did o ega d wome ‘s igh s as equi i g pa icula a e io as she did o , especially du i g he p emie ship, co side ha wome we e bei g dep ived of hei igh s. She had o ce sugges ed he sho lis i g of wome by defaul fo all public appoi me s ye had also p oposed ha hose wi h you g child e ough o leave he wo kfo ce.368

Tha che ‘s s a ce o immig a io i he la e 1970s was pe ceived as pa of a isi g acis public discou se,369 which Ma i Ba ke e ms ew acism.370 I opposi io , Tha che believed ha he Na io al F o (NF) was wi i g ove la ge umbe s of Co se va ive vo e s wi h wa i gs agai s floods of immig a s. He s a egy was o u de mi e he NF a a ive by ack owledgi g ha ma y of hei vo e s had se ious co ce s i eed of add essi g. I 1978 she c i icised Labou ‘s immig a io policy o a ac vo e s away f om he NF o he Co se va ives.371 He he o ic was followed by a i c ease i Co se va ive suppo a he expe se of he NF. C i ics o he lef accused he of pa de i g o acism.372 b 10

Ma y Tha che i e policies had a i flue ce o he Labou Pa y,376377 which e u ed o powe i 1997 u de To y Blai . Blai eb a ded he pa y New Labou i 1994 wi h he aim of i c easi g i s appeal beyo d i s adi io al suppo e s,378 a d o a ac hose who had suppo ed Tha che , such as he Es**7** ma .379 Tha che is said o have ega ded he New Labou eb a di g as he g ea es achieveme .380 I co as o Blai , he Co se va ive Pa y u de William Hague a emp ed o dis a ce himself a d he pa y f om Tha che ‘s eco omic policies i a a emp o gai public app oval.381

Sho ly af e Tha che ‘s dea h i 2013, Sco ish fi s mi is e Alex Salmo d a gued ha he policies had he u i e ded co seque ce of e cou agi g Sco ish devolu io .382 Lo d Foulkes of Cum ock ag eed o Sco la d To igh ha she had p ovided he impe us fo devolu io .383 W i i g fo The Sco sma i 1997, Tha che a gued agai s devolu io o he basis ha i would eve ually lead o Sco ish i depe de ce.384

Repu a io

Ma ga e Tha che was o me ely he fi s woma a d he lo ges -se vi g P ime Mi is e of mode imes, bu he mos admi ed, mos ha ed, mos idolised a d mos vilified public figu e of he seco d half of he we ie h ce u y. To some she was he saviou of he cou y who … c ea ed a vigo ous e e p ise eco omy which we y yea s la e was s ill ou pe fo mi g he mo e egula ed eco omies of he Co i e . To o he s, she was a a ow ideologue whose ha d-faced policies legi imised g eed, delibe a ely i c eased i equali y … a d des oyed he a io ‘s se se of solida i y a d civic p ide. The e is o eco cili g hese views: ye bo h a e ue. b 11

Biog aphe Joh Campbell (۲۰۱۱b, p. ۴۹۹)

Tha che ‘s e u e of 11 yea s a d 209 days as B i ish p ime mi is e was he lo ges si ce Lo d Salisbu y (13 yea s a d 252 days, i h ee spells) a d he lo ges co i uous pe iod i office si ce Lo d Live pool (14 yea s a d 305 days).385386

Havi g led he Co se va ive Pa y o vic o y i h ee co secu ive ge e al elec io s, wice i a la dslide, she a ks amo g he mos popula pa y leade s i B i ish his o y i e ms of vo es cas fo he wi i g pa y; ove 40 millio ballo s we e cas i o al fo he pa y u de he leade ship.387388389 He elec o al successes we e dubbed a his o ic ha ick by he B i ish p ess i 1987.390

Tha che a ked highes amo g livi g pe so s i he 2002 BBC poll 100 G ea es B i o s.391 I 1999, Time deemed Tha che o e of he 100 mos impo a people of he 20 h ce u y.392 I 2015 she opped a poll by Sco ish Widows, a majo fi a cial se vices compa y, as he mos i flue ial woma of he pas 200 yea s;393 a d i 2016 opped BBC Radio 4’s Woma ‘s Hou Powe Lis of wome judged o have had he bigges impac o female lives ove he pas 70 yea s.394395 I 2020, Time magazi e i cluded Tha che ‘s ame o i s lis of 100 Wome of he Yea . She was chose as he Woma of he Yea 1982, he yea i which he Falkla ds Wa bega u de he comma d a d esul ed i he B i ish vic o y.396

I co as o he ela ively poo ave age app oval a i g as p ime mi is e ,284 Tha che has si ce a ked highly i e ospec ive opi io polli g a d, acco di g o YouGov, is see i ove all posi ive e ms by he B i ish public.397 Jus af e he dea h i 2013, acco di g o a poll by The Gua dia , abou half of he public viewed he posi ively while o e hi d viewed he ega ively.398 I a 2019 opi io poll by YouGov, mos B i o s a ed he as B i ai ‘s g ea es pos -wa leade (wi h Chu chill comi g seco d).399 Acco di g o he poll, mo e ha fou i e B i o s (44%) hi k ha Tha che was a good o g ea p ime mi is e , compa ed o 29% who hi k she was a poo o e ible o e.399 She was vo ed he fou h-g ea es B i ish p ime mi is e of he 20 h ce u y i a 2011 poll of 139 academics o ga ised by MORI.400 I a 2016 U ive si y of Leeds su vey of 82 academics specialisi g i pos -1945 B i ish his o y a d poli ics, she was vo ed he seco d-g ea es B i ish p ime mi is e af e he Seco d Wo ld Wa .401

Cul u al depic io s

Acco di g o hea e c i ic Michael Billi g o ,402 Tha che lef a empha ic ma k o he a s while p ime mi is e .403 O e of he ea lies sa i es of Tha che as p ime mi is e i volved sa i is Joh Wells (as w i e a d pe fo me ), ac ess Ja e B ow (voici g Tha che ) a d fu u e Spi i g Image p oduce Joh Lloyd (as co-p oduce ), who i 1979 we e eamed up by p oduce Ma i Lewis fo he sa i ical audio album The I o Lady, which co sis ed of ski s a d so gs sa i isi g Tha che ‘s ise o powe . The album was eleased i Sep embe 1979.404405 Tha che was heavily sa i ised o Spi i g Image, a d The I depe de labelled he eve y s a d-up’s d eam.406

Tha che was he subjec o he i spi a io fo 1980s p o es so gs. Musicia s Billy B agg a d Paul Welle helped o fo m he Red Wedge collec ive o suppo Labou i opposi io o Tha che .407 K ow as Maggie by suppo e s a d oppo e s alike, he cha so g Maggie Ou became a sig a u e allyi g c y amo g he lef du i g he la e half of he p emie ship.408

Wells pa odied Tha che i seve al media. He collabo a ed wi h Richa d I g ams o he spoof Dea Bill le e s, which a as a colum i P iva e Eye magazi e; hey we e also published i book fo m a d became a Wes E d s age evue i led A yo e fo De is?, wi h Wells i he ole of Tha che ‘s husba d. I was followed by a 1982 TV special di ec ed by Dick Cleme , i which Tha che was played by A gela Tho e.409

Si ce he p emie ship, Tha che has bee po ayed i a umbe of elevisio p og ammes, docume a ies, films a d plays.410 She was po ayed by Pa icia Hodge i Ia Cu eis’s lo g u p oduced The Falkla ds Play (2002) a d by A d ea Risebo ough i he TV film The Lo g Walk o Fi chley (2008). She is he p o ago is i wo films, played by Li dsay Du ca i Ma ga e (2009) a d by Me yl S eep i The I o Lady (2011),411 i which she is depic ed as suffe i g f om deme ia o Alzheime ‘s disease.412 She is a mai cha ac e i he fou h seaso of The C ow , played by Gillia A de so .413

Ti les, awa ds a d ho ou s

Tha che became a p ivy cou sello (PC) o becomi g a sec e a y of s a e i 1970.414 She was he fi s woma e i led o full membe ship igh s as a ho o a y membe of he Ca l o Club o becomi g Co se va ive Pa y leade i 1975.415

As p ime mi is e , Tha che eceived wo ho o a y dis i c io s:

Two weeks af e he esig a io , Tha che was appoi ed Membe of he O de of Me i (OM) by he Quee . He husba d De is was made a he edi a y ba o e a he same ime;419 as his wife, Tha che was e i led o use he ho o ific s yle Lady,420 a au oma ically co fe ed i le ha she decli ed o use.421422423 She would be made Lady Tha che i he ow igh o he subseque e obleme i he House of Lo ds.424

I he Falkla ds, Ma ga e Tha che Day has bee ma ked each 10 Ja ua y si ce 1992,425 commemo a i g he fi s visi o he Isla ds i Ja ua y 1983, six mo hs af e he e d of he Falkla ds Wa i Ju e 1982.426

Tha che became a membe of he House of Lo ds i 1992 wi h a life pee age as Ba o ess Tha che , of Kes eve i he Cou y of Li col shi e.285427 Subseque ly, he College of A ms g a ed he usage of a pe so al coa of a ms; she was allowed o evise hese a ms o he appoi me as Lady of he O de of he Ga e (LG) i 1995, he highes o de of chival y.428

I he US, Tha che eceived he Ro ald Reaga F eedom Awa d f om he Reaga P eside ial Fou da io i 1998;429 she was desig a ed a pa o of he He i age Fou da io i 2006,430431 whe e she es ablished he Ma ga e Tha che Ce e fo F eedom.432

نخبگان مؤنث:

مارگارت تاچر؛ بانوی آهنینِ جنجال برانگیز

در طول تاریخ چند هزار ساله تمدن بشری، عادت معهود بر این بوده که نقش نیمی از افراد جامعه یعنی زنان در تحولات مهم اجتماعی، سیاسی، علمی، هنری و دیگر شاخه‌های اندیشه بشری نادیده گرفته شده و در خوش بینانه‌ترین حالت، نقشی فرعی و در حاشیه برای آنان منظور شده است.

به گزارش خبرنگار ایمنا، حاشیه‌ای کردن نقش زنان در حالی است که بسیاری از جنبش‌های مهم اجتماعی و سیاسی در نقاط مختلف جهان اساساً با رهبری و هدایت برخی زنان شاخص شکل گرفته، پیش رفته و حتی به تحولی عظیم در جامعه محل رخ دادن آن انجامیده است.

بر این اساس، خبرگزاری ایمنا می‌کوشد در سلسله گزارش‌هایی به معرفی برخی از این زنان تأثیر‍‌گذار بپردازد و نگاهی به حرکت‌های جسورانه‌ این نخبگان مؤنث داشته باشد تا الهام‌بخش اعتماد به زنان در بین خود آنها و نیز از سوی کسانی باشد که هنوز به توانایی‌های بانوان با دیده تردید می‌نگرند.

خانواده و تحصیلات

«مارگارت هیلدا رابرتز» در ۱۳ اکتبر ۱۹۲۵ در «گرانتهام» شهر کوچکی واقع در ۱۵۰ کیلومتری شمال لندن دیده به جهان گشود. پدر و مادر وی صاحب یک مغازه خواروبارفروشی بودند. پدر وی پیرو کلیسای پروتستان انجیلی، مبلغ مذهبی و در عین حال عضو شورای شهر بود. او در شکل گیری شخصیت و سیاست‌هایی که مارگارت در دوران حکومت خود در پیش گرفت تاثیر تعیین کننده ای داشت.

مارگارت علاقه ای به شغل آزاد نداشت، بنابراین به دنبال تحصیل رفت؛ ابتدا لیسانس هنر از دانشگاه آکسفورد دریافت کرد و سپس در دو رشته شیمی و حقوق تحصیلات عالیه را ادامه داد و از هر دو فارغ التحصیل شد. بعد از آن به ریاست گروه فارغ التحصیلان عضو حزب محافظه کار در دانشگاه آکسفورد انتخاب شد.

مادر دوقلوها و رهبر حزب محافظه کار

مارگارت بعد از فارغ‌التحصیلی در رشته شیمی از دانشگاه آکسفورد در یک کارخانه مواد غذایی به نام «جی لیونز» فعالیت می‌کرد و از اعضای گروه تحقیقاتی بود که موفق به ساخت بستنی نیمه منجمد شدند. وی بارها گفته بود که علاقه چندانی به رشته شیمی نداشت، اما فعالیت در همین رشته بود که باعث آشنایی او با همسرش شد.

در ۱۹۵۱ مارگارت با «دنیس تاچر» از مدیران ثروتمند صنایع نفت انگلیس ازدواج کرد و از آن پس به «مارگارت تاچر» مشهور شد. وی در سال ۱۹۵۱ مدتی را به عنوان کارشناس دادگستری به فعالیت پرداخت. وی در سال ۱۹۵۳ با موفقیت به درجه وکالت ارشد رسید و همزمان فرزندان دو قلوی وی به نام های مارک و کارول متولد شدند.مارگارت تاچر سال ۱۹۵۱ فعالیت های سیاسی خود را با حضور در انتخابات پارلمانی پیگیری کرد.

وزیر «شیردزد»

در ۱۹۵۹ به نمایندگی مجلس عوام انگلیس انتخاب شد و در دولت حزب محافظه کار در ۱۹۷۰ سمت وزارت آموزش و پرورش را بر عهده گرفت. در این زمان سیاست اصلی وی کاهش چشمگیر هزینه های این وزارتخانه بود. یکی از پیامدهای این سیاست قطع شیر رایگان برای دانش آموزان بین سنین ۷ تا ۱۱ سال بود. این اقدام باعث شد که حزب رقیب و برخی مطبوعات به شدت خانم تاچر را زیر حمله گرفته و به وی لقب « شیر دزد» دادند؛ این عبارت در زبان انگلیسی برای افرادی به کار برده می‌شود که در هر فرصتی سعی می‌کنند از شرایط به بهترین نحوه بهره برداری یا سوء استفاده کنند.

مارگرت تاچر در ۱۹۷۵ به رهبری حزب محافظه کار انتخاب شد. این نخستین بار در تاریخ انگلستان بود که یک زن رهبر یک حزب سیاسی عمده این کشور می شد. در سوم مه ۱۹۷۹ با پیروزی محافظه کاران در انتخابات پارلمانی، مارگارت تاچر به سمت نخست وزیری انگلستان انتخاب شد. وی در نهم ژوئن ۱۹۸۳ برای بار دوم و در ۱۱ ژوئن ۱۹۸۷ برای بار سوم در این سمت ابقا گردید.

از نظر صلابت سیاسی وی را هم تراز وینستون چرچیل، نخست‌وزیر مشهور و با نفوذ دهه‌های ۴۰ و ۵۰ بریتانیا می‌دانند. حمایت تاچر از بازار آزاد، کاهش خدمات دولتی و واگذاری سازمان‌های دولتی به بخش خصوصی، برخی از سیاست‌های مشهور او بود که به «تاچریسم» معروف است. پافشاری بر سیاست‌های اقتدارگرایانه و محافظه‌کارانه وی که منتقدان بسیاری داشت و مقابله او با قدرت گرفتن اتحادیه‌های کارگری در بریتانیا او را به «بانوی آهنین» مشهور کرد.

بانویی که اهل چرخیدن نبود

بخش چشمگیری از نمایندگان حزب کارگر در پارلمان در مورد پیامدهای سیاست‌های خانم تاچر نگران بودند و در برخی از شهرهای بزرگ بریتانیا نیز اعتراض به این سیاست‌ها به حد شورش و ناآرامی رسیده بود، اما نخست وزیر حاضر به عقب نشینی نبود. او در سخنرانی خود خطاب به کنفرانس سالانه حزب محافظه کار در سال ۱۹۸۰ گفت:«خطاب به کسانی که منتظر هستند تا آن جمله مورد علاقه روزنامه ها، یعنی چرخش در سیاست، را در مورد من بشنوند فقط همین یک جمله را می گویم که اگر می خواهید شما می توانید بچرخید، اما این بانو اهل چرخیدن نیست.»

در اواخر سال ۱۹۸۱ میزان محبوبیت وی به ۲۵ درصد تنزل پیدا کرده بود. این نازل ترین میزان محبوبیتی بود که تا آن زمان برای یک نخست وزیر ثبت شده بود، اما در همان مدت کوتاه وی توانسته بود مسیر اقتصاد کشور را دگرگون کند. از اوایل سال ۱۹۸۲ اقتصاد بریتانیا به سمت احیا گام برداشت و به موازات آن موقعیت و محبوبیت خانم تاچر در میان رای دهندگان نیز بهبود یافت. محبوبیت وی در آوریل سال ۱۹۸۲ به خاطر واکنش قاطعانه به اشغال جزایر فالکلند توسط آرژانتین به اوج خود رسید.

مارگارت تاچر به سرعت یک نیروی عملیاتی را توسط ناوگان نیروی دریایی به منطقه اعزام کرد و پس از یک درگیری کوتاه و تسلیم شدن نیروهای آرژانتینی این جزایر باز پس گرفته شدند. حمله نظامیان بریتانیا به جزایر فالکلند اولین حضور جدی وی در عرصه بین الملل بود. پس از این نبرد موقعیت مارگارت تاچر بیش از پیش به عنوان رهبری مصمم تثبیت شد.

کیف مشهور تاچر

مارگارت تاچر کیف دستی مشهوری داشت که به قیمت ۴۵۰ دلار خریده بود.  او در سال ۲۰۰۰ گفته بود که این کیف چرمی مشکی تنها محل امن در دفتر نخست وزیر بوده است! فعل To Ha dbag هم  به خاطر نحوه رفتار تاچر با وزرای کابینه‌اش مشهور و به همین خاطر وارد فرهنگ لغات آکسفورد شد.

این فعل در حال حاضر به معنای حمله لفظی یا فیزیکی یک زن به کار می‌رود! نمایندگان حزب محافظه‌کار این فعل را درباره رفتار تاچر با وزرا به کار بردند. گفته می‌شود تاچر رفتار تحکم آمیز و دیکتاتوری داشت و به همین خاطر این‌طور درباره او حرف می‌زدند. 

از خانه دار کردن انگلیس‌ها تا استعفا

مارگرت تاچر در سالهای نخست وزیری خود تابع و هم پیمان سیاست های آمریکا در اروپا بود. از همین رو سیاست وحدت پولی اروپا و یا پیمان اتحادیه اروپای بدون مرز با مخالفت وی روبرو بود. مارگارت تاچر نزدیکترین متحد رونالد ریگان، رییس جمهور پیشین ایالات متحده به شمار می آمد. بسیاری این دو را به چشم چهره های کلیدی که در افول کمونیسم نقش داشتند می شناسند. 

در طول مدتی که وی ریاست دولت بریتانیا را برعهده داشت هزاران تن از شهروندان عادی این کشور از طریق خرید مسکن دولتی صاحب ملک شدند، و هزاران نفر دیگر با خرید سهام شرکت‌های دولتی بزرگی مثل شرکت گاز و شرکت تلفن که توسط وی خصوصی شدند، به قشر سهامداران و طرفداران بازار آزاد پیوستند، اما بی اعتنایی و مخالفت وی با روشهای سیاسی تفاهم آمیز او را به یک رهبر اختلاف برانگیز بدل کرد و میزان مخالفت با سیاست‌ها و روش حکومت‌گریش در نهایت به شورش علیه وی در حزب حاکم محافظه کار و ناآرامی در سطح جامعه بریتانیا منجر شد.

مارگارت تاچر سمت نخست‌وزیری را تا ۲۲ نوامبر ۱۹۹۰ بر عهده داشت و سپس در پی ۱۱ سال نخست‌وزیری و ۱۵ سال رهبری حزب محافظه‌کار از مقام خود استعفا داد و جای خود را به «جان میجر» وزیر خزانه‌داری جوان کابینه خود سپرد. تاچر بعد از کناره‌گیری از نخست‌وزیری به عنوان نماینده حزب محافظه‌کار در پارلمان باقی‌ماند و به فعالیت‌های سیاسی خود ادامه داد. اما خط سیاسی تاچر در دوران پس از وی یعنی زمان نخست‌وزیری جان میجر نیز ادامه یافت.

مارگارت تاچر اولین نخست وزیری شد که در سال ۲۰۰۷ در حالی که در قید حیات بود مجسمه ای از او ساخته و در مجلس عوام بریتانیا نصب شد. تاچر در سال های پایانی عمرش از بیماری آلزایمر رنج می برد و به همین دلیل در مجامع عمومی کمتر ظاهر می شد.

آیا تاچر نخبه بود؟

مواضعی سیاسی مارگارت تاچر در قبال نلسون ماندلا، قهرمان مردم آفریقای جنوبی، حمایت وی از رژیم آپارتاید آفریقای جنوبی، روابط نزدیکش با آگوستو پینوشه، دیکتاتور سابق شیلی که جنایت‌ها و کشتارهای فراوانی را در این کشور انجام داد  و از همه مهمتر سیاستهای وی در قبال انقلاب ایران، قضاوت کردن در مورد نخبه بودن این زن سیاستمدار را دشوار می‌کند.

به ویژه تاچر به واسطه موضع گیری‌هایی که در برابر انقلاب اسلامی ایران داشت، نام و آوازه خوشی در بین ما ایرانی ها ندارد، اما با این حال مارگارت تاچر یکی از تاثیر گذارترین سیاستمداران قرن بیستم بود. میراث سیاسی مارگارت تاچر بر سیاست نخست وزیرانی که پس از وی در انگلیس به قدرت رسیدند، چه از حزب محافظه کار و چه از حزب کارگر تاثیر بسیار داشت. او نخستین نخست وزیر زن تاریخ بریتانیا است که در چند دوره پیاپی توانست سمت خود در این کشور حفظ کند. او توانست در عالم مردانه سیاست در بریتانیا جایی برای خود باز کند و سیاستهای اقتصادی و شگردهای سیاسی این زن آهنی تحت عنوان «تاچریسم» همیشه در یادها خواهد ماند.

مارگارت تاچر

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